About the Self-Concept Scales Available on this Site


 Caveat: These instruments are mainly for use in research, though they may also have some self-evaluative applications. They are available without fee, but if used in published research they should be properly referenced. If you do use them, I would be interested in hearing about your research findings.

 Brief History

The three self-concept scales which are available include the ASSEI (Adult Sources of Self-Esteem), the Fleming-Courtney Self-Esteem Scales, and the PASCI (Personal and Academic Self-Concept Inventory).

 The latter two were both designed to assess various components of the hierarchical, multifaceted self-concept scheme of Shavelson, Stanton, and Hubner (1976). Because these have academic components they have mostly been used with students from high school through college age. The ASSEI was designed for use with adults (as well as with students).

 The Fleming-Courtney Scales (Fleming & Courtney, 1980) were an extension and modification of the pre-existing Janis and Field (1959) Self-Esteem Scale, itself previously revised by Fleming and Watts (1980).  We added some general academic items, and items to measure physical appearance and abilities, and modified or eliminated certain other items and modified the format.

 The PASCI (Personal and Academic Self-Concept Inventory) was an extension of the Fleming-Courtney Scales (Fleming & Whalen, 1984). More academic scales were added (verbal and math abilities), as well as a social anxiety scale, and some items were eliminated from the existing scales. In a later (unpublished) revision I added a scale for “perceived familial acceptance.” This version was used by Gifford (2005) in his dissertation, and it is found in the most recent version of this instrument. Gifford found a moderate negative correlation (-0.35, p < .01) between the latter and anti-social personality tendencies.

 Choosing Among the Scales

The ASSEI can be used with any teen or adult population (as long as English is reasonably understood). It contains fewer items than the other two scales and, unlike them, allows test takers to self-evaluate by examining discrepancies between areas of life (e.g., personal relations, physical appearance) between desired self (importance ratings) and actual self (satisfaction ratings). Click on this link for more details about its creation, rationale, and use in prior research, and Click here and here to download the instrument itself  (importance and satisfaction ratings, respectively).

 The Fleming-Courtney Scales have found wider acceptance than the PASCI, perhaps because this instrument is shorter and gives an overall measure of self-esteem as well as subscale scores for different areas. Click on this link for downloading. Click here for the scoring key.

A commercial German language version of the Fleming-Courtney scales (Multidimensionale Selbstwertskala), developed by Schutz and Sellin (2006) is now available. Norms and other data are included.

 I have not done as much development work with the PASCI although it has been used by several doctoral dissertation students. I recommend this instrument only for those who wish to assess many different aspects of the Shavelson model in their research, whereas the other two instruments may also be  useful for self-evaluation or counseling purposes. Click on this link for downloading.  Click here for the scoring key, and here for original norms.

 The references below should help the potential user decide on which, if any, of these scales would be most useful for their purposes.



      Elovson, A. C., & Fleming, J. S. (1987). The Adult Sources of Self-Esteen Inventory (ASSEI). Unpublished assessment instrument, California State University, Northridge.

Fleming, J. S., & Elovson, A. C. (1989/2008). The Adult Sources of Self-Esteem Scale (ASSEI): Development, Rationale and History. Unpublished manuscript, available from first author [see link above].

 Fleming, J. S., & Courtney, B. E. (1984). The dimensionality of self-esteem: II. Hierarchical facet model for revised measurement scales. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 46, 404-421.

 Fleming, J. S., & Watts, W. A. (1981). The dimensionality of self-esteem: Some results for a college sample. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 39, 921-929.

 Fleming, J. S., & Whalen, D. J. (1990). The development and validation of the Personal and Academic Self-Concept Inventory (PASCI) in high school and college samples. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 50, 957-967.

 Gifford, G. (2005). The factor structure of antisocial personality disorder. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Washington State University.

 Janis, I. L., & Field, P. B. (1959). Sex differences and factors related to persuasibility. In C.I. Hovland & I. L. Janis (Eds.), Personality and persuasibility (pp. 55-68). New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.

 Shaveleson, R. J.,  Hubner, J. J., and Stanton, G. C. (1976). Self-concept: Validation of construct interpretations. Review of Educational Research, 46, 407-441.

Schutz, A.,  & Sellin, I. (2006). MSWS: Mulltidimensionale Selbstwertskala. [Test manual]. Gottingen: Hogrefe.